A content analysis of the focus group transcripts was completed to extract the main definitions and determinants of optimal hearing-aid use.
Both clients and hearing-aid dispensers described optimal hearing-aid use as being frequent and regular and driven by the individual needs of the clients. When describing determinants of optimal hearing-aid use, both clients and dispensers mentioned the role of the client, the role of the dispenser, and the role of the hearing aid. They both highlighted the importance of client access to information. However, how clients and dispensers described the influence of these determinants varied somewhat.
Clients emphasised the role of the hearing aid in achieving optimal hearing- aid use. From a client perspective, hearing aids which performed well and which had relevant features were most central. In contrast, dispensers emphasised the role of a good client-dispenser relationship in achieving optimal hearing-aid use. From the dispensers’ perspective, dispensers who were able to understand the needs of the clients and to instruct clients appropriately were most central. It is commendable that dispensers acknowledge the importance of the client-dispenser relationship, but given clients’ focus on hearing aids, dispensers might wish to describe more explicitly to their clients how their intervention can extend beyond provision of the optimal hearing aid.
Differences between self-reported hearing-aid use and objectively measured hearing-aid use (data logging)
Previous studies found that, on average, users over-report their daily amount of hearing-aid use compared to objective measures such as data-logging. However, the reasons for this are unclear. This study assessed data-logged and self-reported amount of hearing-aid use in a clinical sample of hearing-aid users. It identified predictors of data-logged hearing-aid use, self-reported hearing-aid use, and hearing-aid use over-report. In total, this observational study recruited 228 adult hearing-aid users from 22 private hearing clinics in the Netherlands and in Denmark. Most participants were over the age of 65 and retired, were fitted binaurally, and had financially contributed to the cost of their hearing aids.
Participants had on average a mild-to-severe sloping bilateral hearing impairment. Participants completed a purposefully designed questionnaire regarding hearing-aid use and the International Outcome Inventory – Hearing Aids (IOI-HA). Dispensers collected data-logging information and audiometric results. Multiple linear regression was used to identify predictors of data-logged hearing-aid use, self-reported hearing-aid use, and hearing-aid use over-report when controlling for covariates. Data-logging showed on average 10.5 hours of hearing-aid use, whilst participants reported on average 11.8 hours of daily hearing-aid use. The average over-report of daily hearing-aid use was 1.2 (1 hour and 11 minutes). Cluster analysis identified two main data-logged patterns: “Regular”, where hearing aids are typically switched on for between 12 and 20 hours before their user switches them off (57% of the sample) and “On-off”, where hearing aids are typically switched on for shorter periods of time (43% of the sample). In terms of self-report, 77% of the sample described their hearing aid use to be the same every day.
Participants for whom data-logging showed an “On-off” pattern or who reported their hearing aid use to be different from day to day had significantly fewer data-logged and self-reported hours of hearing aid use. Having an “On-off” data-logging pattern or describing hearing aid use as the same every day was associated with a significantly greater hearing aid use over-report.
Data-logged and self-reported use patterns significantly predicted data-logged hearing-aid use, self-reported hearing-aid use, and over-report when controlling for covariates. The results point to patterns of hearing-aid use as being at least as important a concept as amount of hearing-aid use. Dispensers should consider discussing not only the “how much”, but also the “how” of hearing-aid use with their clients.
Tool for hearing-aid use goal setting and assessment
This study, which is the third and final research project on the topic of hearing-aid use, was initiated in 2012 and is ongoing. The purpose of this study is to develop and test a tool that facilitates hearing-aid use goal setting and assessment in a clinical audiological setting. The tool incorporates the knowledge gained from the two previous studies as it takes into account the individual needs of the client and patterns of hearing-aid use. The tool was developed at the Eriksholm Research Centre during the second half of 2012 in an iterative process integrating input from both internal and external audiologists, designers, and anthropologists. The tool has been pilot tested with audiologists (n=4) and adults with hearing impairment taking part in a hearing aid fitting (n=12) in Denmark. The tool is now being tested in a larger population of adults with hearing impairment attending audiology appointments in Canada and in the United Kingdom.
We hope that the results can inform clinical practice surrounding hearing-aid use, for example when it comes to assessment methods. The findings could also result in fitting software which better facilitates dispensers’ use of data-logging with clients
Laplante-Lévesque A, Jensen LD, Dawes P, Nielsen, C (2013). Optimal hearing aid use: Focus groups with hearing aid clients and audiologists. Ear & Hearing, 34(2), p. 193-202.
Laplante-Lévesque A, Nielsen C, Jensen LD, Naylor G. (In Press). Patterns of hearing aid usage predict hearing aid use amount (data-logged and self-reported) and over-report. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology